Acta Bioethica 2022-11-30T13:53:44+00:00 Alvaro Quezada Open Journal Systems <p>Acta Bioethica is a biannual publication by the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies in Bioethics of the University of Chile (ISSN 0717-5906, press edition, y 1726-569-X, electronic edition), which publishes in three languages: Spanish, English and Portuguese.</p> <p>Indexed in Science Citation Index (SCI), Scopus, Lilacs, SciELO y Latindex, and in database from several Institutions; it constitutes a pluralistic source of perspectives and an important tribune which accepts the contributions of authors compromised with the interdisciplinary study of ethical determinants and consequences of techno scientific research.</p> <p>The journal edits a main topic per issue, with articles asked by an invited editor (specialist in the topic chosen), and it also includes a section of articles not solicited of various nature (interfaces), reviews of recent bioethical publications and other significant documents for the inter discipline. It also counts with an International Advisory Committee and a system of arbitration of manuscripts based on peer review.</p> <p>The journal is published on HTML and PDF format in SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and in PDF in the web site for journals of the University of Chile.</p> Neuroethics: the reign of neuroscience begins in the foundation of the ethics 2022-11-28T15:17:10+00:00 Gustavo Figueroa 1] The Neuroscience of Ethics constitutes a progress when applying empirical science in the investigation of the moral phenomenon. 2] Emphasizing the importance of affects and feelings represents a compensation for the excessive importance given to reason in the formation of moral judgments. 3] There are serious methodological difficulties by not specifying the concepts of intuition, affections, duty and especially what is understood by ethics. 4] But scientific research apprehends man as an “entity” in himself (present) and not as an “existence” (future), that is, being-in-the-world. 5] Instead of “having” a moral, the human being “is” moral and as such is a project thrown towards its most authentic possibility that consists of appropriating its being-for-death. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gustavo Figueroa Privacy of information in qualitative social research: the transition to the digital world 2022-11-29T13:08:25+00:00 María Eugenia Rapimán Salazar Tamara Jesús Chibey Rivas This text addresses the problem of information privacy in qualitative social research developed in the context of the digital world. For this purpose, the concept of privacy is reviewed from an analogical view towards its incorporation in the digital plane with the figure of information privacy and some elements of Gadamer’s hermeneutics. First, the analogical and ethical plane of privacy is reviewed. Then, the potential of information, the distinction between private and sensitive information and its applicability to social research through the concepts of trust and security are reviewed. Finally, we outline a proposal for a renewed privacy that proposes to rescue the intersubjectivity that is built in the relationship between the research participant and the researcher. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 María Eugenia Rapimán Salazar, Tamara Jesús Chibey Rivas Advance directives in mental health and the revocation problem 2022-11-29T15:46:28+00:00 Pablo Marshall Hernán Gómez Yuri This paper seeks to address the bioethical problem of the collision of wills that may occur during the implementation of advance directives in mental health, with special emphasis on self-binding directives, pointing out certain guidelines to be observed in order to adequately regulate this circumstance, determining those manifestations and behaviors that should count as revocation of the instructions contained in the document. For these purposes, a methodology consisting of a review of the relevant literature is used. It is concluded that it is impossible to find a solution that satisfies all the conflicting interests, but that the implementation of effective advance directives in mental health requires a regulation that grants them a certain degree of rigidity, establishing, in a clear and coherent manner, the circumstances in which they are to be understood as revoked, whether an evaluation of capacity is used or the determination of the circumstances of revocation is left to the user himself. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pablo Marshall, Hernán Gómez Yuri Unity, individuality and uniqueness of the person in the risk/benefit balance of the use of nutrigenetic tests in clinical practice 2022-11-29T15:55:18+00:00 Ana Laura De la Garza Yael Zonenszain-Laiter In recent years, whole genome association studies have been conducted to identify genetic variants associated with the interindividuality of response to dietary treatments for weight loss. These nutritional genomics efforts contribute to the advancement of nutrition science 4.0: preventive, participatory, predictive and personalized. However, although to date more than 85 million polymorphisms have been discovered in the human genome, these findings do not indicate that the presence of these variations determines an effect on a personal health. Therefore, the use of the nutrigenetic profile for weight loss leads to analyze the risks/benefits with the bioethical principles focused on the unity, individuality and uniqueness of the human person. Thus, based on classical thinkers such as Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas, but with the contribution of contemporary philosophers, such as Robert Spaemman, the person is defined as an individual substance of a rational nature, breaking down the fundamental dimensions to demonstrate, by argumentation, that the principle individuality not only includes the biological dimension (materialistic naturalism), but the unity of the person belonging to human nature. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ana Laura De la Garza, Yael Zonenszain-Laiter Shared decision-making in genetic counseling: a scoping review 2022-11-29T18:18:21+00:00 Peng Chenyang Ning Ni Li Yiyu Tan Xiangmin Tu Chaofeng Sun Mei Background: It is challenging to make informed decision in genetic counseling. Shared decision-making provides a chance in balancing the information and preferences between counselors and counselees. However, the status and prescriptions of shared decision-making have not been extensively studied in genetic counseling. Aim: To develop an up-to-date literature review of the shared decision-making in genetic counseling, identify knowledge gaps, and provide inspiration and suggestions for the development and practice of genetic counseling. Methods: “Genetic Counseling” and “Shared decision-making” were used to search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang, CNKI and CBM databases. The search deadline was March 26, 2021. Results: A total of 22 articles were included, and four themes were identified: how people involved in genetic counseling, different stakeholders involved in SDM, multiple facilitators and barriers to SDM and the effectiveness of SDM in genetic counseling. Conclusion: Each participant needs to recognize their boundaries and make the best effort to involve in the shared decision-making. In the future, multinational studies should be considered for bringing shared decision-making to the global scale and well-designed studies are required to explore the long-term impact of shared decision-making in genetic counseling. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Peng Chenyang, Ning Ni, Li Yiyu, Tan Xiangmin, Tu Chaofeng, Sun Mei Bioethical analysis (moral subjectivism) from the perception of clinicians on the situation of embryos subjected to in vitro fertilization. Quito-Ecuador 2022-11-30T06:56:08+00:00 Víctor Hugo Almeida Arteaga Anderson Díaz-Pérez The objective of this paper is to analyze the perceptions and practices of clinicians in relation to the management of embryos subjected to in vitro fertilization techniques. Methodology is Qualitative (subjectivist and phenomenological). A total of 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted using saturation sampling for clinical personnel who have participated in vitro fertilization procedures. The data is analyzed with the Atlas Ti 8.0® program. Results: Clinicians consider the embryo as a Human being or future human being, in addition, deserving of respect and consideration even proposing improvements in the processes of handling and storage. Conclusion. Embryos are not considered as entities susceptible of damage from not only technical but ethical arguments. From the principialist current, the need to promote attitudes of responsibility and prudence to avoid dogmatism (moral objectivism) is described, proposing a deliberative position. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Víctor Hugo Almeida Arteaga, Anderson Díaz-Pérez Performance of the professional councils concerning 966 complaints addressed to Regional Councils of Medicine (CRM) of Minas Gerais from 2012 to 2017 2022-11-30T07:16:00+00:00 Eduardo Luiz Nogueira Gonçalves Francisco das Chagas Lima e Silva Guilhermina Rego The study aimed to analyze the actions of the Professional Councils in relation to 966 professional-ethical complaints addressed to the Regional Council of Medicine of Minas Gerais between 2012 and 2017. The number of cases, gender, articles violated of the Code of Medical Ethics and decisions made in the lawsuits were considered. An expressive result was observed in terms of acquittal (535 cases) by the Regional Council of Medicine of Minas Gerais. There was a divergence when the same cases were evaluated by the Federal Council of Medicine, which upheld the acquittal in only 29% of the cases. Due to the methodology applied, it was not possible to go beyond speculation on the subject, being necessary a better analysis of the scientific community on this issue. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eduardo Luiz Nogueira Gonçalves, Francisco das Chagas Lima e Silva, Guilhermina Rego The impact of medical students' attitudes towards group ethical norms on their academic achievement and classroom deviant behaviour: an empirical study from China 2022-11-30T07:23:18+00:00 Zheng Zang In recent years, medical students' absenteeism has been investigated in depth. Classroom deviant behavior is a richer concept than truancy behavior, but there are few researchers on this aspect in China. There are still many issues worth discussing about deviant classroom behavior. In this paper, questionnaires were given to 977 medical students to collect relevant data. After classifying the data, correlation analysis and multilevel linear regression analysis were used to conclude that academic performance and group ethical norms have a negative impact on medical students' deviant behaviors in class. Group ethical norms have a significant positive influence on academic performance, and descriptive ethical norms and imperative ethical norms of group ethical norms have a significant influence on academic performance. The four dimensions of academic performance: academic performance, task performance, interpersonal promotion, and social comparison have a negative influence on medical students' deviant behaviors in class. Descriptive ethical norms have an inverse effect on medical students' deviant behaviors, while imperative ethical norms have no significant effect on deviant behaviors in class. Group ethical norms as a category of ethical norms clearly have significant implications for improving academic performance and reducing their transgressions in class. Reinforcing group ethics in medical students will not only contribute to their professional ethics upon graduation, but also to their academic performance. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Zheng Zang Moral distress experienced by online suicide prevention volunteers 2022-11-30T07:38:26+00:00 Liu Shuxian Sun Mei Tang Siyuan Background: With the increasing number of internet users, it becomes feasible to identify individuals at high risk of suicide and then carry out online suicide prevention. At the same time, online suicide prevention volunteers may encounter moral distress, which requires more attention. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the experience of moral distress in online suicide prevention. Method: The study was carried out as a qualitative study following the method of phenomenology. 11 interviewers were recruited through the purposive sampling method. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Colaizzi’s phenomenological framework was used for data analysis. Results: All participants reported they encountered moral distress during online suicide prevention. Four themes were condensed, including: “constraints from the surrounding,” “be cruel to be kind,” “baby spoiled by free milk,” and “when face death and depression” Participants also described their emotional experiences and response when they encountered moral distress. Conclusion: Moral distress in the process of online suicide prevention exists. More attention should be paid to the moral distress and ethical issues in online suicide prevention as the internet gradually becomes a brand-new way to prevent suicide. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Liu Shuxian, Sun Mei, Tang Siyuan Informed consent in anesthesiology: an exploratory study 2022-11-30T07:58:01+00:00 Bárbara Fontes Sílvia Marina Diana Andrade Sofia Dias Miguel Ricou In the literature Informed consent (IC) assumptions is well established. However, the different stages and the conditions under which the IC for anesthetic practices is obtained, is scarce. The aim of the present study is to explore the phases and conditions of IC in anesthesiology. Anonymized clinical records of 325 patients submitted to anesthetic procedures at the Institute of Oncology of Porto were analyzed. A total agreement between the anesthetic techniques established in the IC and those performed, was reach with 270 patients. The importance of IC in clinical practice is discussed and an ideal process for IC is argued. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bárbara Fontes, Sílvia Marina, Diana Andrade, Sofia Dias, Miguel Ricou The role of the father in the care of the newborn in an intensive care unit during the covid-19 pandemic: a perspective from the new masculinities 2022-11-30T08:15:16+00:00 Nina Julieth Díaz Jassim Elena Patricia Robles Díaz Anderson Díaz-Pérez Goal. To analyze the role of the father in the care of the newborn hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methodology. This is a qualitative approach study. The selection of open sampling, convenience saturation, interviewing 10 parents where at the end 4 were analyzed where the interviews were conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). The data was analyzed using the Atlas Ti 8.0® program through categories and content analysis. Results. Parents need to face the stressful situation of having their child in an intensive care unit, train and learn about the baby’s health condition, constantly carry out introjection and reflective self-analysis, delve into the spiritual component and also focus on the I work as financial manager. Conclusion. The father’s skills in the care of the hospitalized newborn were identified, such as patience and passion to perform the role of father. It is evident that man has a fundamental role in the care of the newborn. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nina Julieth Díaz Jassim, Elena Patricia Robles Díaz, Anderson Díaz-Pérez A bioethical examination of the use of human emotions as a film marketing tool on short video platforms: normative morality applicable to film marketing matrix 2022-11-30T10:14:59+00:00 Huiyi Zhang Zheng Zang The marketing matrix on a short video platform is an intriguing research topic. It is a novel film marketing strategy on the short video platform that successfully stimulates the audience’s emotion in the film marketing process, but it must also be ethically tested.To address this desire, we examine the problem using normative ethics (consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics). The marketing matrix will be addressed within the framework of philosophical ethics, whose emotional marketing can be tested, in what follows, through reviews of literature and content analysis. First and foremost, a matrix standpoint will be adopted in order to provide a preliminary conceptualization along with its emotional techniques of the marketing matrix; then, the marketing matrix will be addressed within the framework of philosophical ethics, whose emotional marketing can be tested. In the future, when creating a moral marketing matrix, the author proposes that numerous ethical concepts be taken into account comprehensively. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Huiyi Zhang, Zheng Zang Learning or grading: an ethical dilemma in medical students 2022-11-30T10:23:09+00:00 Rafael Bustos Saldaña Medical students must shape their future work, before, during and after their student life. It is a necessity for physicians in general from their student stage to have an apprenticeship based on what they must perform for their later professional work activity. This school development of learning is usually influenced by the form of the curricula that each of the educational institutions allow. In most of them, the privileges that students have during their trajectory are granted through the grade point averages they have in each school cycle. Very often, achieving the privileges offered by schools creates bioethical problems for students who have professional learning as an alternative. The confrontation of this dilemma can cause alterations in the student’s school development and even in his physical or mental health. 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Bustos Saldaña Salud universal (one health) y ética. Desafíos para la mentalidad bioética 2022-11-28T15:08:48+00:00 Fernando Lolas Stepke 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fernando Lolas Stepke MARTÍNEZ-PINTOR, F. y MARTÍNEZ GAMO, A. Antropología Médica. Medicina basada en la Antropología. 2022-11-30T10:34:24+00:00 Fernando Lolas Stepke 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fernando Lolas Stepke FOUCAULT, MICHEL. El poder psiquiátrico. Curso en el College de France 1973-1974 2022-11-30T10:38:51+00:00 Fernando Lolas Stepke 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fernando Lolas Stepke SAUERBRUCH, F., WENKE, H. El dolor. Su naturaleza y significación 2022-11-30T10:43:38+00:00 Fernando Lolas Stepke 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fernando Lolas Stepke IT TAKES MORE THAN TWO TO MAKE A BABY. The “Dobbs versus. Jackson” Decision of the US Supreme Court 2022-11-30T10:29:53+00:00 Hans-Martin Sass 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hans-Martin Sass