Alternatives to animal experimentation in toxicology: present situation

  • María Pilar Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo Universidad de Barcelona, España


Toxicology rules are placing greater emphasis on the evaluation of risks posed by chemical substances on public and environmental health and with this goal, studies with animals have been used. Due to public and scientific pressure there is an increasing tendency to apply the principle of the three Rs in research with animals, fact observed in national legislations. All of this has promoted research on alternative methods different from traditional ones.

In this review, the main alternative methods are shown with the goal to replace laboratory animals, to reduce their amount or to refine the techniques used in obligatory toxicology essays before new products are placed on the market.

Author Biography

Profesora Titular de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Barcelona, España.




Keywords animal experimentation, toxicology, alternatives, three Rs principle, validation
How to Cite
Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, M. (2007). Alternatives to animal experimentation in toxicology: present situation. Acta Bioethica, 13(1). Retrieved from